Total area: 338,424 km2
Capital: Helsinki (558,457)
Other Largest Cities: Espoo (256,760), Tampere (202,687), Vantaa (190,058).
Population: 5.53 million
Ethnic Composition: Finnish - 91.33%, other Europeans - 4.90%, Asian - 2.50%, African - 0.90%, other - 0.37%.
Language: The two main official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish.
Religion: Evangelical Lutheran Church
State structure: Unitary parliamentary republic
National day: Finland's Independence Day is a national public holiday, and a flag day, held on 6 December to celebrate Finland's declaration of independence from Russia in 1917.
Local Time: UTC +3
Climate: Finland has a much milder climate than most other regions of the world that lie as far north. July temperatures in Finland average 13 to 17°C. February is usually Finland's coldest month, with temperatures averaging from - 22 to -3°C. In northern Finland, winter temperatures often drop as low as -30°C or even down to -50°C, sometimes with strong, cold easterly or northeasterly winds. Snow covers the ground in southern Finland from December to April, and northern Finland is snowbound from October to April. Most of the country is icebound in winter, the Gulf of bothnia and Finland are also usually covered with ice. In winter, Finland has similar periods of continuous darkness. In the northernmost areas of the country the sun never rises above the horizon for about 2 months. Southern Finland has some daylight each day, though it receives only about 6 hours of daylight a day in midwinter. The winter night sky-especially in the northern areas of Finland-often becomes enriched with brilliant displays of the aurora borealisz or Northern Lights.
Especially in Autumn and winter the Weather can be hazardous with heavy snowfall and strong winds. weather changes can be abrupt and extreme, and can be very dangerous when you are "outdoor" and without good clothing.